Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn.) is an important cereal crop in eastern Africa and southern India with excellent grain storage capacity and the unique ability to thrive in extreme environmental conditions. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of finger millet using 12 developed microsatellites. By sequencing 815 clones from an SSR-enriched genomic DNA library, we obtained 12 polymorphic SSR markers, which also revealed successful amplicons in finger millet accessions. Using the developed SSR markers, we estimated genetic diversity and population structure among 76 finger millet accessions in Asia, Africa, and unknown origins. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 9, with an average of 3.3 alleles. The mean values of observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were 0.27 and 0.35, respectively. The average polymorphism information content was 0.301 in all 76 finger millet accessions. AMOVA analysis showed that the percentage of molecular variance among the populations was 1%, that among individuals was 5%, and that within individuals was 94%. In STRUCTURE analysis, the 76 finger millet accessions were divided into two subpopulations which had an admixture of alleles. There was a correspondence among PCoA, AMOVA, and population structure. This study may form the basis for a finger millet breeding and improvement program.